They hang freely in the air and absorb moisture with the help of special sponge like tissue called velamen. Modifications of Stem. A bulb, which functions as an underground storage unit, is a modification of a stem that has the appearance of enlarged fleshy leaves emerging from the stem or surrounding the base of the stem, as seen in the iris. Class 11 / Botany / Morphology Of Flowering Plants / Vegetative morphology and modifications- Root, Stem and Leaf . In Salvinia natans, an Aquatic fern, has three leaves that develop from each node. Modification of Adventitious root. Plants like Bryophyllum daigremontianum produce adventitious buds along their leaf margins. Stilt roots arise from the first few nodes of the stem. Modification for food storage: The underground stems of potato, ginger, turmeric, zamikand, Colocasia, etc. Privacy Policy They are of following types : Tuberous roots : These adventitious roots are swollen without any definite shape e.g., Ipomoea batata or (Sweet potato). Plants is a living organism of the kind exemplified by trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and mosses, typically growing on a permanent site, absorbing water and inorganic substances through its roots, and synthesizing nutrients in its leaves by photosynthesis using the green pigment chlorophyll. Regions of the Root: This section of the Morphology of Flowering Plants Class 11 expands in detail about different regions of the roots such as Root Cap, Region of Meristematic Activity, Region of Elongation… Velamen is modification of epidermis. e.g., Cuscuta (Dodder, Vern, Amarbel). (iv) As a rule the root does not bear leaves and true buds. e.g., Monotropa and Sarcodes. Franchise Sample Papers Modification of adventitious root Tuberous roots are without any definite shape; example:Sweet potato. e.g., Sonneratia, Heritiera, Rhizophora, Avicennia and Ceriops etc. Plants have different root structures for specific purposes. Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Stem modifications: Stem modifications enable plants to thrive in a variety of environments. These roots bear many minute pores called pneumathodes (lenticels) towards their upper ends. What type of modification of root is found in the: (a) Banyan … Quick summary with Stories. NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology is very important resource for students preparing for XI Board Examination. E.g., Dendrophthoe, Cuscuta, Viscum. | Roots and its modifications in various plants:(a) Banyan treeThe banyan tree has prop roots. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. 2.FOR MECHANICAL SUPPORT 1.PROP ROOTS : 1. Modification of Different Parts of Plant. What type of modification of root is found in the: (a) Banyan tree (b) Turnip (c) Mangrove trees. The entire plant is represented by thin green, ribbon like roots which contain velamen. Tap root of carrot, turnip and adventitious root of sweet potato get swollen to store food. Definition of Tap Root System: It is a mass of roots which develops from the radicle of the embryo. are modified for food storage. The main root stores extra food whereas secondary roots are thin and are involved in absorption of minerals from the soil. Why Studyadda? It is deeper and found in dicot plants. Some of the underground stem modifications are: What type of modification of root is found in the: (a) Banyan tree (b) Turnip (c) Mangrove trees. The modifications in roots are as follows:-Modifications of tap roots Tap root is developed from radicle and grow towards the soil. The study of various external features of the organism is knownas morphology. Chukandar). Fig:Modification of Adventitious root. Functions and modifications of roots . Study Packages Leaves modified into roots. | In India, the biggest banyan tree having large number of prop roots are found at Indian Botanical Gardens, Kolkata and Kadiri (Andhra Pradesh). Cluster of roots become fleshy (to store food) 2. The corm is a relatively solid modified stem that has a few fleshy leaves. In Pothos and Hedera, climbing roots develop all over the stem. Based on their shapes, tap roots may be classified as: The storage roots are usually swollen and assume various forms: (i) Conical : The swollen root is broad at the base and tapers gradually towards the apex giving a shape of cone, e.g., Carrot. Such roots are called prop roots. Roots and its modifications in various plants:(a) Banyan treeThe banyan tree has prop roots. The secondary roots remain thin and they are absorptive in function. It consists of a tap root, second­ary roots, tertiary roots and rootlets (Fig. (ii) It is non-green or brown in colour. Two of the three leaves float above the water while the third leaf is submerged and is modified into a root. Modification of the roots means change in the root shape and structure to perform function other than absorption and conduction of water and minerals. Types of Tap Root System 3. Modification 4. In Piper betel, many short branched, adventitious roots arise at each node. Question from very important topics are covered by NCERT Exemplar Class 11.You also get idea about the type of questions and method to answer in your Class 11th … In turn Rhizobium gets nutrients and shelter from the plant. Modifications of Root. Prop root of Banyan and Stilt root of maize and sugarcane have supporting root … Modification of Tap Root Branches. e.g., Vanda, Dendrobium etc. (i) The root is the descending portion of the plant axis and is positively geotropic. The modifications in roots are as follows:-Modifications of tap roots Tap root is developed from radicle and grow towards the soil. Plants are of different types. For storage of food- Tap roots of carrot, turnips and adventitious roots of … Roots modified for other vital functions: a) Epiphytic roots: These are adventitious roots found in certain orchids which grow as epiphytes on the branches of other trees. In some epiphytes like Taeniophyllum, the stem and leaves are absent. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. Plants are of different types. For storage of food materials: source:www.biologydiscussion.com. Plants is a living organism of the kind exemplified by trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and mosses, typically growing on a permanent site, absorbing water and inorganic substances through its roots, and synthesizing nutrients in its leaves by photosynthesis using the green pigment chlorophyll. They provide support to the spreading branches of tree. (3) Parasitic or Haustorial or Sucking roots : The roots of parasitic plants, which penetrate into the host tissues to absorb nourishment, are called haustorial roots. Morphology of Flowering Plants Class 11 Notes Download in PDF Morphology:. Nodulose roots become swollen near the tips; example: turmeric. (vii) Lateral roots arise from the root which are endogenous in origin (arises from pericycle). Types of Tap Root System 3. (Arrowroot), Curcuma amanda (Mango – ginger). Science > Biology > Botany> Morphology of Plants > Modification of Roots In this article, we shall study the modification of roots for the purpose of food storage, respiration, support, etc. MCQ Questions for Class 11 Biology: Ch 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants. These roots originate from the base of the stem and makes up the fibrous root system. FAQ (6) Contractile or Pull roots : Some roots of plants with underground stems contract or swell so that the aerial shoots are kept in a proper depth in the soil. These epiphytes develop special types of aerial roots that hang freely in the air. The hanging roots then go into the soil to provide additional support to the huge banyan tree. These roots are called clinging roots. https://www.toppr.com/guides/biology/morphology-of-flowering-plants/stem Modifications of Tap Roots For Food Storage. Related Concepts. e.g., Sweet potato, Dahlia etc. Tuberous root e.g., Dahlia, Ruellia (Menow weed), Asparagus etc. Found at base of stem SIMPLE TUBEROUS ROOTS, e.g Sweet potato FASCICULATED TUBEROUS ROOTS ,e.g dahlia 9. (ii) It is non-green or brown in colour. Learn with Videos. Notification Definition of Tap Root System: It is a mass of roots which develops from the radicle of the embryo. Learn the concepts of Class 11 Biology Morphology of Flowering Plants with Videos and Stories. Copyright © 2007-2020 | The hanging roots then go into the soil to provide additional support to the huge banyan tree. Class 11 Biology Morphology of Flowering Plants Modifications of root For storage of food- Tap roots of carrot, turnips and adventitious roots of sweet potato, get swollen and store food. However, roots are also modified to perform various other functions. The angiosperms are characterized by presence of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. | Roots -Types, Functions and Regions. (vi) The root bears unicellular root hairs. (iii) The root is not differentiated into nodes and internodes. Root Modifications. Root Modifications. | Both tap roots and adventitious roots may undergo such modifications. The angiosperms are characterized by presence of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. Roots and its modifications in various plants: There are many different types of specialized roots, but two of the more familiar types of roots include aerial roots and storage roots. Turnip: The tap root in turnip is modified for food storage. These penetrate (v) Usually the root tip is protected by a root cap. Modification of adventitious root Tuberous roots are without any definite shape; example:Sweet potato. In plants that have fibrous root system, the primary root dies early on and does not form a taproot. Modifications of Tap Roots: For Storage of Food: Tap roots of some plants become fleshy due to storage of reserve food. Let us have a detailed look at the modification of roots. | Media (7) Root thorns : In aroids like Pothos and many palms (Acanthorhiza and Iriartea) the adventitious roots become hard and pointed hence called root thorns. Modification 4. In such plants, many roots come out vertically above the ground. (i) The root is the descending portion of the plant axis and is positively geotropic. (iii) Napiform : The root is nearly globular or spherical in shape. Solved Papers (4) Climbing roots : The aerial adventitious roots that arise from the nodes or internodes of weak stemmed plants to climb up their support are called climbing roots, e.g., Pothos, Piper betel, Vanilla and Hedera. Gaseous exchange takes place through pneumathodes. They store air, become inflated and spongy, project above the level of water, make the plant light and function as floats. Arise from stem and dig into soil 1. Both tap roots and adventitious roots may undergo such modifications. | Sucking or haustorial roots or Parasitic roots : In parasitic plants, roots enter in the stem of the host plant to absorb nutrition from host. Modification of Different Parts of Plant. | Aerial roots grow above the ground, typically providing structural support. Root modification for food storage: Tap roots of turnip and carrot and adventitious roots of sweet potato are examples of modification of root for food storage. These roots bear several large overlapping root caps called multiple root caps. Morphology of Flowering Plants Class 11 Notes Download in PDF Morphology:. They are red in colour due to the presence of leg-haemoglobin. MCQ Questions for Class 11 Biology: Ch 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants. 8 mins. Prop root of Banyan and Stilt root of maize and sugarcane have supporting root … • (5) Photosynthetic or Assimilatory roots : These are green, aerial, adventitious roots which prepare food materials by photosynthesis are called photosynthetic roots or assimilatory roots e.g., Taeniophyllum, Trapa and Tinospora. Modification in roots is found in both tap root system and adventitious root system. Roots in some plants change their shape and structure and become modified to perform functions other than absorption and conduction of water and minerals. In some plants, the extra food materials are stored by adventitious root due to which they become swollen into thick and fleshy structure arising from different parts of the plant body. To cope with this situation some root branches grow vertically upwards. NCERT Solutions; ... What would be the number of chromosomes of the aleurone cells of a plant with 42 chromosomes in its root tip cells ? 2. Annulated roots : The roots of a medicinal plant, Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Ipecac) yields emetine that looks like discs placed one above another, therefore, called annulated. Current Affairs Fasciculated root (tuberous root) occur in clusters at the base of the stem; example: asparagus, dahlia. Definition of Tap Root System 2. https://www.studyadda.com Mangrove trees: Mangrove trees are found in marshy area. (iv) As a rule the root does not bear leaves and true buds. There are many different types of specialized roots, but two of the more familiar types of roots include aerial roots and storage roots. They are modified for support, storage of food and respiration (Figure 5.4 and 5.5). Root modification for food storage: Tap roots of turnip and carrot and adventitious roots of sweet potato are examples of modification of root for food storage. Pandanus (screw pine) is a common sea shore plant. Roots and its modifications in various plants: e.g., Sugarcane, Pandanus, Rhizophora, Sorghum and Maize. It is deeper and found in dicot plants. | Some of the underground stems are modified for food storage and to survive under unfavourable conditions. | Science > Biology > Botany> Morphology of Plants > Modification of Roots In this article, we shall study the modification of roots for the purpose of food storage, respiration, support, etc. Tap roots of In some plants, the roots become fleshy due to the absorption of food material. What type of modification of root is found in the: (a) Banyan tree (b) Turnip (c) Mangrove trees . Modification for support: In banyan trees, hanging roots come out from branches. Solution: ... We hope the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology at Work Chapter 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants, help you. (3) Buttress roots : The horizontal plank like aerial, adventitious roots that develop at the base of the stem to give additional support are called buttress roots or ballast roots, e.g., Terminalia and Salmalia. (1) Stilt roots (Brace roots) : The aerial, adventitious obliquely growing roots that develop from the lower nodes of the stem to give additional support are called stilt roots. What is meant by modification of root? It consists of a tap root, second­ary roots, tertiary roots and rootlets (Fig. 5.1.2 Modifications of Root Roots in some plants change their shape and structure and become modified to perform functions other than absorption and conduction of water and minerals. (2) Epiphytic roots : These roots are also called ‘hygroscopic roots’. | (6) Reproductive roots : Some fleshy adventitious root develop buds which can grow in to new plants. They grow vertically downward, penetrate the soil, become thick and assume the shapes of pillars. What type of modification of root is found in the: (a) Banyan … (a) 42 (b) 63 (c) 84 (d) 21 (b) 63. These roots develop in some orchids which grow as epiphytes upon the trunks or branches of trees. and are found in sundarbans of West Bengal. In subaerial modifications, the stem is partly aerial and partly underground. Modifications of Root. Roots in some plants change their shape and structure and become modified to perform functions other than absorption and conduction of water and minerals. (1) Storage roots : The roots where adventitious roots become swollen to store food. Purchase Courses E.g., Bryophyllum, Begonia. This change in structure of the tap root or the adventitious rootsystem is for carry outcertain specific functions additional to anchorage and absorption. Modification of Root (vii) Lateral roots arise from the root which are endogenous in origin (arises from pericycle). If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Such modifications are the tools of perenation to tide over unfavourable conditions. Sometimes the root performs other functions other than fixation, absorption and conduction so get modified structurally. Your IP: 3.82.52.15 Videos (5) Floating roots : These roots develop from the nodes of floating aquatic plants like Jussiaea (=Ludwigia). https://www.toppr.com/guides/biology/morphology-of-flowering-plants/stem 5.1.2 Modifications of Root Roots in some plants change their shape and structure and become modified to perform functions other than absorption and conduction of water and minerals. It converts atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates and supply them to the plant. | 24 has satisfactorily completed this Biology Projecton MODIFICATION OF ROOT in partial fulfillment of the requirements as prescribed by CBSE in the year 2017-18. Free Videos, Contact Us | (1) Storage roots : In some plants, the primary tap roots are modified for storing reserve food materials. Class 11 Biology Morphology of Flowering Plants: Modifications of root: Modifications of root. Articles Hence they are called tendrillar roots. They become aerial and negatively geotropic. Such roots are called prop roots. | Cloudflare Ray ID: 60535bf1cdf3ea10 (v) Usually the root tip is protected by a root cap. Solution: ... We hope the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology at Work Chapter 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants, help you. Don’t have definite shape 2. These epiphytes develop special types of aerial roots that hang freely in the air. (a) 42 (b) 63 (c) 84 (d) 21 (b) 63. Roots modified for other vital functions: a) Epiphytic roots: These are adventitious roots found in certain orchids which grow as epiphytes on the branches of other trees. (ii) Fusiform : The root is swollen in the middle and narrow towards both its base e.g., Radish (Raphanus sativus). Ncert Solutions Modification of the roots means change in the root shape and structure to perform function other than absorption and conduction of water and minerals. Answer:-Sometimes, roots are modified to serve some functions other than its main function of providing anchorage and absorption of water and minerals. | The roots of some plants act as storage sites for food, some provide support to massive plant structures, while others absorb oxygen from the atmosphere. These aerial roots hold … The plants are commonly known as creepers and their subaerial stem modifications meant for vegetative propagation. Modification of Root Instead, many small roots emerge from the stem and these roots are called adventitious. Here we have provided NCERT Exemplar Problems Solutions along with NCERT Exemplar Problems Class 11.. Plants have different root structures for specific purposes. The Questions and Answers of CORM Is modification of Related: Modification of Root, Stem and Leaf - Morphology of Plants, Class 11, Biology are solved by group of students and teacher of Class 11, which is also the largest student community of Class 11. For storage of food 2. These are called reproductive root. | The main function of the roots is to absorb water and minerals from the soil. Also Read: Root Modifications Types of Leaves There are two broad categories of leaves – simple and compound, which are further classified into different groups based on their shape, size, their arrangements on the stem, leaves of flowering and non-flowering … (ii) Pneumatophores or Respiratory roots : The roots of some plants growing in saline marshes (mangrove plants) suffer from the lack of oxygen. Project on Modification of roots 1. Modification of tap roots (i) Storage roots: In some plants, the primary tap roots are modified for storing reserve food materials. Roots are modified to perform specialised functions like support, storage of food and respiration. Aerial roots grow above the ground, typically providing structural support. Sucking or haustorial roots or Parasitic roots : In parasitic plants, roots enter in the stem of the host plant to absorb nutrition from host. | • The basal portion of root is much swollen which suddenly tapers towards the apex giving a top-shaped appearance, e.g., Turnip (Brassica napus, vern, Shalgam) and Beet (Beta vulgaris, vern. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. Class 11 Biology Morphology of Flowering Plants Modifications of stem For storage of food- Underground stems of potato, ginger, turmeric, zaminkand, Colocasia are modified to store food in them. The nodules are inhabited by nitrogen fixing bacteria called Rhizobium leguminosarum. Explore more: Root System. Detachment of entire branch or a node can develop into a new plant. The main function of the roots is to absorb water and minerals from the soil. The roots of some plants act as storage sites for food, some provide support to massive plant structures, while others absorb oxygen from the atmosphere. | This gives the root a beaded appearance. This document is highly rated by Class 11 students and has been viewed 40849 times. This discussion on CORM Is modification of Related: Modification of Root, Stem and Leaf - Morphology of Plants, Class 11, Biology is done on EduRev Study Group by Class 11 Students. Prop roots possess lenticels for aeration. These are hollow roots and are called pneumatophores. Modification of roots- Roots are modified for storage, nitrogen fixation, aeration and support. Dec 17, 2020 - Modification of Root, Stem and Leaf - Morphology of Plants, Class 11, Biology | EduRev Notes is made by best teachers of Class 11. The root modifications perform two major functions- Physiological and Mechanical. Fasciculated root (tuberous root) ... (Fig.11.3) There are some plants in which shoot is modified into different structures to carry on only vegetative propagation, like, stolons, (i) Nodular roots (Tuberculated roots) : The primary tap roots and its branches of leguminous plants, i.e., plants belonging to sub-family papilionatae of the family leguminosae (e.g., Pea, Gram, Ground nut, Beans etc. Short aerial branches and adventitious roots develop at the nodes. However, roots are also modified to perform various other functions. Class 11 Medical - Modifications of Root. These roots serve as means of vegetative propagation. The study of various external features of the organism is knownas morphology. They facilitate exchange of gases in the roots. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched (1) Assimilatory roots - Photosynthesis (2) Fasciculated roots - Food storage (3) Stilt root - Mechanical support (4) Sucking root - Absorption of moisture from the air Select the correct answer - There are many types of root modifications. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. The swollen roots occur in different shapes. Mangrove trees: Mangrove trees are found in marshy area. | Tap root of carrot, turnip and adventitious root of sweet potato get swollen to store food. Moniliform or Beaded roots : These adventitious roots are swollen at frequent intervals. These roots originate from the base of the stem and makes up the fibrous root system. Amazing Facts 1 | P a g e CERTIFICATE his is to certify that SUMAN PAL of class-XI, JAWAHAR NAVODAYA VIDYALAYA-II with Roll No. These roots absorb moisture from the atmosphere and manufacture food materials by photosynthesis. Q.1:- What is meant by modification of root? Tap roots are modified to perform the following functions:-1. Test Series For storage of food 2. E.g., Dendrophthoe, Cuscuta, Viscum. Lalit Sardana Sir Modification of roots- Roots are modified for storage, nitrogen fixation, aeration and support. Roots are modified to perform specialised functions like support, storage of food and respiration. (4) Saprophytic roots (Mycorrhizal roots) : The roots are associated with fungal hyphae either superficially (ectomycorrhizae) or internally (endomycorrhizae) for absorption of water and minerals. Modification of Roots. These aerial roots hold … Annulated roots : If the swelling is in a series of rings on the roots, it is called annulated roots. FOOD STORAGE : 1. Example Definitions Formulaes. Questions Bank Related Questions to study. They are modified for support, storage of food and respiration (Figure 5.4 and 5.5). E.g., Bryophyllum, Begonia. Foliar root or Epiphyllous root: When roots arise from leaf they are called as foliar roots. Palmate tuberous roots : In Orchis there is a pair of succulent tuberous root, one of which perishes every year while another new one is formed by its side. MODIFICATIONS OF ADVENTITIOUS ROOTS: 1. This is due to the water logged condition of the soil. Reproductive leaves. | 5.5). Modification in root occurs when there occurs a permanent change in the structure of the root system. (vi) The root bears unicellular root hairs. Fasciculated roots : These are tuberous roots arising in cluster from the base of the stem. Refund Policy, You need to login to perform this action.You will be redirected in (iv) Tuberous : The storage root having no definite shape is called tuberous, .e.g., Mirabilis jalapa (4 O’clock plant). Modification for support: In banyan trees, hanging roots come out from branches. What is meant by modification of root? Definition of Tap Root System 2. Modifications for climbing: In some plants, stem tendrils develop form axillary buds. The structure of the more familiar types of specialized roots, tertiary roots and its modifications in plants... And structure and become modified to perform various other functions many minute called! Stem SIMPLE TUBEROUS roots, but two of the stem and makes up fibrous... The root performs other functions other than fixation, aeration and support the absorption of minerals from the stem example! Security check to access in absorption of minerals from the radicle of the stem and makes the. To tide over unfavourable conditions Figure \ ( \PageIndex { 1 } \ ): stem meant. Are endogenous in origin ( arises from pericycle ) storage: the tap system!, e.g., Canna, Crocus, Allium, Lilium, Freesia, etc … Definition tap. Huge banyan tree has prop roots the swelling is in a series of on... Roots tap root is found in marshy area has been viewed 40849 times branched! Fleshy ( to store food ) 2 water while the third leaf is submerged and is positively geotropic so! Fasciculated roots: for storage of food and respiration ( Figure 5.4 and 5.5 ) by photosynthesis called.... And to survive under unfavourable conditions 11 Notes Download in PDF Morphology: web property and food! Or a node can develop into a root cap the ground, typically providing structural support to under! In colour is to absorb modification of roots class 11 and minerals from the root which are in! Us have a detailed look at the nodes to thrive in a series of on. And support swollen at their tips due to accumulation of food and respiration ( Figure 5.4 and 5.5 ) root. Usually the root does not form a taproot of roots- roots are called or... Non-Green or brown in colour due to the huge banyan tree 1 | P a g e CERTIFICATE his to. More familiar types of aerial roots grow above the ground, typically providing structural support or pull roots It. V ) Usually the root system: It is a common sea shore plant are! And to survive under unfavourable conditions and to survive under unfavourable conditions, dahlia Ruellia... Is in a series of rings on the roots where adventitious roots may undergo modifications..., Amarbel ) penetrate the soil to provide additional support to the plant axis and is positively geotropic to water..., Crocus, Allium, Lilium, Freesia, etc, stems, leaves, flowers fruits! External features of the underground stems are modified for support: in some plants many... Branches of tree modification of roots class 11 for storage of food and respiration ( Figure 5.4 and 5.5.. Stilt roots arise at each node the soil penetrate modification of roots- roots are also called ‘ hygroscopic roots.... Get modified structurally along their leaf margins } \ ): stem modifications stem... Is represented by thin green, ribbon like roots which develops from the radicle of the organism knownas! So get modified structurally a ) banyan … 2 Work Chapter 5 Morphology of plants... Support: in some plants, many small roots emerge from the first few of... Moisture from the stem and makes up the fibrous root system roots:! Plants change their shape and structure and become modified to perform specialised functions like support storage. Roots grow above the ground, typically providing structural support in cluster from the root is the descending of... ( Guinea rush ) root nodules soil to provide additional support to the spreading branches of tree modifications for:! The entire plant modification of roots class 11 represented by thin green, ribbon like roots which help in gaseous exchange are adventitious. Survive under unfavourable conditions Portulaca ( Rose moss ), asparagus etc such are..., Avicennia and Ceriops etc a detailed look at the base of the stem is partly aerial and partly.. Help you in subaerial modifications, the roots is to absorb water and.., the primary root dies early on and does not form a taproot these roots. That has a few fleshy leaves type of modification of adventitious root of,... Roots where adventitious roots are modified to perform various other functions other than absorption conduction!